The shade of my father hastens to my defense. And says: "From you, severity, son, is expected. Cessa, crudel, tanto rigor! My dear beloved, believe me at least, without you my heart languishes. Your faithful one always sighs; cease, cruel one, so much punishment! Mesicku, postuj chvili reckni mi, kde je muj mily Rekni mu, stribmy mesicku, me ze jej objima rame, aby si alespon chvilicku vzpomenul ve sneni na mne.
Zasvet mu do daleka, rekni mu, rekni m kdo tu nan ceka! O mneli duse Udska sni, at'se tou vzpominkou vzbudi! Mesicku, nezhasni, nezhasni! O moon high up in the deep, deep sky. Your light sees far away regions, You travel round the wide. Wide world peering into human dwellings. O, moon, stand still for a moment. Tell me, ah, tell me where is my lover Tell him, please, silvery moon in the sky.
That I am hugging him firmly, That he should for at least a while Remember his dreams! Light up his far away place. Tell him, ah, tell him who is here waiting! If he is dreaming about me. May this remembrance waken him! O, moon, don't disappear, disappear!
Translation by Jules Brunelle bruneUejule5 videovron. Tous ces hommes ne sont qu'indifFerence et que brutalite. Les femmes sont mechantes et les heures pesantes J'ai I'ame vide Ou trouver le repos? Et comment fixer le bonheur? O mon miroir fidele, rassure-moi! Dis-moi que je suis belle, et que je serai belle etemellement! Que rien ne fletrira les roses de mes levres, Que rien ne temira I'or pur de mes cheveux! Dis-le moi! Je serai belle etemellement! Tais-toi, voix impitoyable, voix qui me dis: "Thais, tu vieilliras Un jour, ainsi, Thai's, ne serait plus Thais Non, je ne puis croire.
Toi Venus, reponds-moi de ma beaute! Venus, reponds-moi, de son eremite! Venus, invisible et presente Venus, enchantement de I'ombre Venus, reponds-moi!
Dis moi que je suis belle I am alone, alone at last! All these men are unfeeling and gross. The women are wicked and the hours weigh heavily I have an empty soul. Where can I find rest? And how can I preserve happiness?
Oh my faithful mirror, comfort me! Tell me that 1 Cammarano* - Don Pasquale (Vinyl beautiful, and that I will be beautiful etemally! That nothing will whither my rosy lips. That nothing will tamish my pure golden hair! Tell me! Be silent, pitiless voice, the voice that tells me: "Thais, you will grow old.
No, I cannot believe it. O Venus, reassure me of my beauty! Venus, answer me, of its etemity! Venus, unseen yet present Venus, enchantment in the shadows Venus, answer me!
Tell me that 1 am beautiful. Thais C'est toi, mon pere Is that you, my father? Te souvient-il du lumineux voyage, Do you remember the radiant joumey Lx rsque tu m'as conduite ic?
When you brought me here? Athanael I remember only your Mortal beauty! Thais Te souvient'il de ces heures de calme Do you remember those hours of peace J'ai le seul souvenier de ton beaute mortelle! Je me souviens seulement de cette soif inapaisee don't tu seras I'apaisement. Surtout te souvient'il de tes saintes paroles en ce jour ou par toi j'ai connu le seul amour? In the cool of the oasis? Athanael Ah! I remember only the unslaked thirst that you alone can quench.
Thais And above all, do you remember your holy words that day When through you 1 learned about true love? Athanael Quand j'ai parle, je t'ai menti! When 1 spoke 1 lied to you! Thais Et la voila I'aurore! And now dawn is coming! Athanael Je t'ai menti! I lied to you! Thais Et les voila les roses de I'Etemel Here are the roses of everlasting matin! Athanael Non! Le ciel. Rien n'existe.
Nothing exists. Rien n'est vrai que la vie Nothing is true but life Et que I'amour des etres. Je t'aime! I love you! Thais Le ciel s'ouvre! Voice les anges Heaven is opening! Here are the Et les prophetes Entends-moi done Ma toute aimee. Deux seraphins aux blanches ailes Planent dans I'azur, et, comme tu I'as dit, Le doux consolateur posant sur mes yeux Ses doigts de lumiere, ah!
En essuie a jamais les pleurs! And the prophets. They come smiling, Their arms full of flowers! Athanael Listen to me. My beloved. Thais Two white-winged seraphim are soaring in the blue, and as you said, the gentle consoler places his fingers of light Upon my eyes, ah! Wiping away my tears for ever. Tu m'appartiens! O ma Thais! Je ti'aime! Je t'aime, je t'aime! Thais, ah! Dis-moi: Je vivrai! Je vivrai! Le son des harpes d'or m'enchante!
De suaves parfums me penetrent! Je sens une exquise beatitude, ah! Une beatutude endormir tous mes maux! O ma Thais, tu m'appartiens! V lensi Ah! Le ciel! Je vois Athanael Come! You belong to me! Thais, ah, come! Tell me: I shall live! Thais The sound of golden harps delights me! Sweet perfumes surround me! I sense an exquisite blessedness, ah! A blessedness that lulls all my ills to sleep! Athanael 0 my Thais, you belong to me!
Thais Ah! Athanael She is dead! Armed with a flute and bells and guided by genies, a prince and a bird-catcher set out to free a princess from a magician. A series of ordeals tests the prince's strength and wisdom, and truth itself seems elusive in this opera that draws on Masonic ritual and includes such dazzling music as the Queen of the Night aria.
Beethoven Sonata No. Sonata No. InMr. Steinhardt won the Leventritt Award and appeared as soloist with major United States orchestras, such as the Cleveland Orchestra, where he was invited by George Szell to serve as assistant concertmaster to When the Guameri String Quartet was founded inMr. Steinhardt became its first violinist, a post he holds today. In addition, he continues to play numerous recitals and solo performances with orchestras throughout the world.
He has made many recordings as a soloist and as a member of the Guarneri Quartet, about which he has written the widely acclaimed book Indivisible by Four. This year she makes her debuts with the St. November 20, 2: W p. Luxury residences with five-star amenities in Philadelphia's most prestigious neighborhood. Wednesday, October 19,at 8 p. Since then, he has become one of its best known composition alumni and is indeed one ot the more noted composers ot the Modem era. Menotti was recommended to Curtis hy the legendary coiiductor Arturo Toscanini, who recognized the year- old's talent.
At the Institute, the composer made lasting connections, working with Rosario Scalero for composition and meeting his lifelong friend and partner Samuel Barber. Bok encouraged the young composer, and she arranged to have his first mature work performed in the opera Amelia Goes to the Ball.
After Cammarano* - Don Pasquale (Vinyl Curtis, Menotti spent time in Vienna, where he lived on the property of a Czech noblewoman. Despite being rendered inert by her own culinary excesses, the lady of the house had many stories of her youthful beauty with the fineries to accompany them. This experience became the seed for Amelia, which was Menotti's Metropolitan Opera premiere just a few years later.
The short overture is a buoyant romp through rousing scalar passages and horn rips, but even with the flashy orchestral writing, Menotti never betrays his innate sense of grace and charm. After passing thematic material sinuously through the instruments, he leads the listener to a grand repeat of the opening. The end of the overture is as spontaneous as the beginning, and we can marvel at the piece that just went by. Menotti is still an active musician at age 94, involved at his own Spoleto Festival, and his operas are performed all over the world.
One can hear his musical passion in this early work, written nearly 70 years ago — a lifetime approaching the age of Curtis itself! Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra, Op. Died: January 23,New York City An extremely informal and unscientific poll was taken at the Marlboro Music Festival five years ago posing the question "Who was the greatest American composer?
Barber may be a surprising choice, since conventional wisdom holds that he was by no measure a great innovator nor a musical maverick. However, he wrote some of the most lyrical and well-crafted work of the last century, and for that he has won the respect and admiration of some of the finest musicians in the world. He is truly a favorite son of Curtis, and his influence and memory continue to make an impact. The piece was written for the great cellist Raya Garbousova who was, incidentally, the grandmother of recent alumnus Jonathan Biss.
Barber sat with the cellist as she played through all of her repertoire in order to tailor the concerto to her playing personality. Nevertheless, the work is still strongly Barber, and we hear this right in the tirst movement amid a bright opening and in the singing melodic phrases that follow.
The musical material is richly neo-Romantic, hut always translucent to allow the cello breathing room in the orchestration. We hear a cadenza in the later part of the movement that idiomatically explores the full registral and timbral range of this versatile instrument. The beloved slow movement of the concerto begins with a most lyrical dialogue between oboe and soloist, set atop a distant section ot muted strings. This gentle music gradually climbs to dramatic peaks with a powerful sweeping quality that epitomizes the expressive nature ot neo-Romanticism itself.
The movement's ability to transport us is heightened by the return, in the third movement, ot the contrasting feeling of forward motion from the tirst. The third movement brings us back to earth with music that alternates between short statements of nervous energy and bold pronouncements in the orchestra.
While Barber still keeps the orchestration transparent with the cello, he takes advantage of the orchestral sections to write lush passages. Likewise, the solo cello is always alive and central to the action ot the music while playing. The ending of the piece is the same as the ending of the tirst movement down to the same notethus rounding out this exciting journey and completing the bookends of the work.
It is a classic form — two related outer movements with a heavenly inner sanctum — deftly crafted by one of the musical masters of the 20th century. Symphony No. One would be hard-pressed to Cammarano* - Don Pasquale (Vinyl someone on the street who did not recognize the powerful and looming opening four-note motive.
We may consider with wonderment, then, the challenges of the fifth's first performance on December 22, Beethoven occasionally organized, at his own expense, large-scale concerts called Academies to promote his work tc the public. These were marathon concerts, and the fifth symphony appeared on one just three days before Christmas in the presumably chilly Viennese hall of the Theater an der Wien. There, it shared the program witb the sixth symphony also a premierethe fourth piano concerto, a concert aric j a portion of his Mass in C, and an extended piano improvisation that led into the Choral Fantasy.
The concert lasted more than four hours and was clearly under-rehearsed; there were, by I witness accounts, what today's musician call "train wrecks. Within a short time it was lionized by the great writer E. Hoffmann to he the highest representa- tion of hoth longing and resolution: "Only through this pain, which, while consuming hut not destroying love, hope, and joy, tries to burst our breasts with a full-voiced general cry from all the passions, do we live on and are captivated I beholders of the spirits.
Beethoven wears the hat of a gifted j essayist here by introducing his marvelously simple thesis and then elaborating upon it for half an hour. Even more important than the interval of the major third, and answering minor third, is the inescapable rhythm ot three notes of pickup to a downbeat.
It is a plaiii idea — that of inward breath and. The motive has further been described as "fate knocking at the door. Andante con moto, opens with a quiet, lilting theme in A-flat in the lower strings in unison.
This soon gives way to a little Beetho- venian triumph with a bright C-major flourish. Throughout this movement n variations on the opening theme continue, alternating between the understated and triumphant. What remains constant is the overarching idea of upbeat and release.
Beethoven follows through in the third movement with a quiet passage that leads into another variation of the "tate" motive, here boldly stated in the horn. A minute and a half into the movement, he has already merged these two introductory thoughts and will lead us into imitative eighth-note runs including some of the more daring contrabass writing up to that point in history.
This unique scherzo is shaped into a long diminuendo to stillness at the very end, when the violins hover, gently lifting in a sequential pattern. There are many groundbreaking elements in the symphony, including the immediate transition ot the hushed ending ot the third movement into the ultimately victorious fourth as well as the general introduction of the piccolo, contrabassoon, and trombone to the symphony orchestra.
The journey from the impending darkness of the first movement to the bright and optimistic last movement conveys a teeling ot final redemption, and many commentators have imagitied this grand expedition to be a metaphor for Beethoven struggling with his owii fate, valiantly overpoweriiig it in the end.
Whether or not the listener infers a program from the music, Beethoven's uricompromising craftsmanship is undeniable. All elements are integrated in this music, such that the smallest details reflect the largest scope. The famc: us "fate" motive that has captured our attention for almost two centuries is its own question and answer, just as the entire first movement relates to the fourth.
If we can grant that the essential purpose of music is to communicate, we 5 can take comtiirt in Beethoven's message ot struggle, triumph, and, ultimately, hope. After studying conducting, composition, piano, taimpet, and viola in Frankfurt, Mr. Mueller became director of the chamber music department tor Radio Stuttgart at the age of 1 9 and was founder and conductor of the celebrated Radio Stuttgart Chamber Choir.
Two years later, he served as conductor of opera and operetta for the Heidelberg Theater, where he also founded and conducted an orchestra for dependents of United States military forces stationed there. Emigrating to Canada iii 1Mr. Mueller worked extensively for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation as conductor of opera, ballet, and symphonic presentations. Inhe became teacher and conductor at the Montreal Conserv- atory.
He later served as director of the Victoria Symphony and founder and dean of the Victoria School of Music. Mueller was a guest professor at the Moscow State Conservatory in and toured the republics of the former Soviet Union in andconducting the Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Riga symphonies. Louis, and other United States orchestras. He has trained conductors of major orchestras, including the Cincinnati, San Diego, and Fort Worth symphonies; the Swedish National Orchestra; and the Auckland New Zealand Philharmonia, as well as the associate or assistant conductors of the Philadelphia, Cleveland, and San Francisco orchestras, to mention a few.
Mueller is currently head of the Helen F. Daniel Lee, cello American cellist Daniel Lee was accepted as a student and protege of Mstislav Rostropovich when he was only 11, the great cellist noting that Mr. Lee played Tchaikovsky's "Rococo" Variations "much better than 1 did when I was Lee's Wigmorc Hall recital in London brought him to the attention ot Decca Records, which made the unusual decision to sign him to an exclusive contract as a means of supporting him as he continued his studies at Curtis.
With piatiist Gordon Back, Mr. His second release with Decca is the Brahms sonatas with pianist Robert Koenig. He has also studied with Peter Wiley and William Pleeth. He began studying at age 6 with Richard Aaron.
Lee plays a Vuillame cello, being loaned through the Ravinia Stearis Institute. Tonight, many Friends of Curtis are attending this concert at a special discount. Join the Friends I Enjoy this exclusive benefit and many others! A distinguished pedagogue, cellist ot the tormer Curtis String Quartet, and Curtis graduate, he joined the faculty in Among Mr.
Cole's classmates back when Curtis first opened, inwas H-year-old composer Samuel Barber. Barber's cello concerto was rarely played for many years and, in fact, has never been performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra. Cole once invited Barber to hear two ot his students play it, and the composer expressed his wish that more would do so.
Cole said recently. So they can overcorne the difficulties," Mr. Cole said. What makes it so hard? That means double stops. They are rapid and difficult to negotiate. Danny Lee will play it as if it's easy. Cole, naming two of the many summer festivals in which students participate today.
Cole lived across the street. Seeing the orchestra program rounded out by Beethoven's Fifth Symphony pleases Mr. Cole, who still thinks of the students and their training: "It's on all the orchestra auditions for cellos and a very important work.
Most lessons, coachings, classes, and recitals take place in these two buildings, as they have since the 's. The buildings retain their wood-paneled walls, high ceilings, decorative ironwork. Oriental rugs, and ornate moldings, but they have been adapted over time to serve the needs ot Curtis without sacrificing their 19th'Century charm. The Common Room is the site of traditional Wednesday-afternoon Tea and is a gathering place tor students at all times. Curtis's performance spaces include Field Concert Hall, a seat auditorium that was added to the Drexel mansion in and was recently renovated, and Curtis Opera Studio, a black-box theater that seats approximately The tour, which also inchides dessert, will conclude iri time for the 8 p.
Call ' for tour reservations. November 20,at p. Translation by Lindley L. Three mysterious ladies appear, kill the beast, and pause to admire the j handsome prince before hurrying back to their mistress, the Queen of the Night. Papageno, a birdcatcher, arrives and, upon awakening, Tamino thanks Papageno for killing the monster. When Papageno boasts ot having done this deed, the Three Ladies seal his mouth with a lock to keep him from lying again.
They present Tamino with a picture of the Queen of the Night's daughter, Pamina, and Tamino falls instantly in love. The Queen of the Night appears and implores Tamino to save her daughter from the clutches of the "evil" Sarastro.
Tamino promises to rescue the Princess. The Three Ladies present Tamino with a magic tlute and Papageiio with magic bells tor protection on their mission. Led by Three Genies, Tamino and Papageno begin their journey. In the palace ot Sarastro, the slave Monostatos tries to force himself upon Pamina. Papageno srumbles upon them and frightens Monostatos away. Mysterious voices forbid him to enter two of them, but behind the third Tamino fiiuls a priest, who informs him that Sarastro has good reason to keep Pamina away from the Qtieen of the Night.
Left alone, Tamino plays his magic flute. Monostatos enters and seizes Papageno and Pamina, but Papagetio plays his magic bells and Monostatos, overcome by their merry tones, releases his captives. Sarastro and his followers arrive. Pamina confesses her escape attempt to Sarastro, who forgives her hut forbids her to return to her mother, the Queen of the Night.
The priests order Tamino and Papageno to keep a vow of silence. The Three Ladies appear and beg the two men to leave the temple and return to the Queen of the Night, but Tamino and Papageno remain steadfast. While asleep, Pamina is stalked by Monostatos, who tries to steal a kiss. Tlie Queen of the Night interrupts and commands Pamina to kill Sarastro with a dagger she provides.
The eavesdropping Monostatos threatens to expose the plot if Pamina does not submit to his lust. Sarastro enters and dismisses Monostatos and assures Pamina that he will not punish her mother's treachery. TlnHigh Tamino and Papageno are obliged to fulfill their vow of silence, Papageno chats with a mysterious old woman.
Pamina tries in vain to converse with the silent Tamino. She takes his silence for rejection, thinking he no longer loves her. Sarastro tells Pamina and Tamino that they must bid farewell to one another.
The mysterious old woman visits Papageno again and is transformed into a beautiful young woman, Papagena, but a priest spirits her away from the unworthy Papageno. Tlie Three Genies discover Pamina on the brink of suicide. They convince her that Tamino truly loves her and they offer to lead her to him. Two priests bring Tamino to his final trial. Pamina meets him and assures him that the magic flute will protect them from harm.
As he plays the flute, the couple undergo the trials of fire and water and emerge triumphant. Papageno, disconsolate over his lost Papagena, threatens to hang himself. Tlie Three Genies advise him to play his magic bells. Papagena appears and the happy couple rejoice and resolve to have many children. The Queen of the Night, Monostatos,and the Three Ladies approach the temple to destroy Sarastro and his followers, but they are rendered powerless and plunged into darkness.
Good finally triumphs over evil. The composer conducted; his sister-in-law took on the role of the wicked Queen of the Night; the theater's director played the naive birdcatcher, Papageno; and a husband and wife were, respectively, the high priest Sarastro and Papagena, an old shrew transformed into a pretty young thing. Delighted to hear an opera in their own language, the audience at the Theater auf der Wieden in suburban Vienna laughed at the simple — even banal — humor and clamored for encores of the charming melodies.
Word spread quickly despite one review claiming that the work was poor in content and, within two years, The Magic Flute had become Mozart's greatest triumph. But while onstage laughter abounded and good triumphed over evil, life was far different tor the composer.
Mozart had composed the opera with feverish intensity and in his usual impoverished state; he was frail and even "weak," he wrote, "from want of food. Within two months of the premiere, Mozart was dead, at age 35, his body tossed into a pauper's grave. Some musicologists have considered The Magic Flute to be Mozart's spiritual testament.
Others claim it was simply ;a brilliant response to the challenge presented by Schikaneder. And a challenge it surely was, for the libretto is based upon a dizzying array of sources, including pseudo-oriental tales, contemporary stage works, and texts of the secret Masonic order to which both Mozart and Schikaneder belonged. What seems at first to be a fairy tale soon evolves into an allegory in which hero and heroine are required to pass through the trials oi fire and water in order to be purified and to reach wisdom and light.
The opera is in the singspiel form, meaning that spoken dialogue alternates with music. Mozart had already composed works in this vein, notably his delightful Die Entfiihrung aus dem Serail. The Magic Flute contains almost two dozen musical selections, ranging from strophic tolk-like tunes for the more earthbound characters, such as Papageno, to arias of exquisite beauty for the heroine, Pamina, and the hero, Tamino.
Sarastro, the high priest, is given music of great nobility George Bernard Shaw wrote that Sarastro's voice would not be out of place in the mouth ot Gixl. Also in the opera are two stratospheric arias for the Queen of the Night, an old Lutheran chorale, an instrumental march, and several ensembles. Mozart fused these and other disparate parts into a magical unity through such means as recurrent musical figures, rhythmic patterns, and harmonic progression.
The key in which each musical portion is composed is directly tied to the course of the drama and characters and even to the characters' changing perception of each other. Mozart's orchestration was for a piece ensemble, which featured trombones and basset horn, as well as Tamino's magic flute and Papageno's 15 magic bells, and it w as made simple to accommodate the typical provincial ensemble.
Yet it is also sophisticated, incorporating such elements as an expressive chromaticism to heighten intensity. Marc Chagall painted sets tor it, Ingmar Bergman created a cult movie based on it, and a marionette company in Mozart's hometown of Salzburg has performed it for over half a century.
Last season an exuberant new staging by the Metropolitan Opera, directed by Broadway's Julie Taymor, garnered newspaper headlines around the world and played to sold-out houses. How many other operas over years of age can claim such verieration? As music director ot the Haddonfield Symphony, he has shaped the ensemble to become one ot the premier training orchestras for young musicians, drawing its members from prominent conservatories including Curtis, Juilliard, Peabtidy, and Manhattan School of Music.
The Chicago Tribune described Mr. Palin received her M. Recent regional Icredits include: Bug and VisitingMr. He has also worked as the resident lighting assistant at Glimmerglass Opera for the last two years. He is a member of Target Margin and Salt Theater. Sophia Farion Genie is a titth-grader at the Masterman School.
She has been singing in church and school choirs since kindergarten and loves to perform, be it vocal, theater, dance, or piano. Credits include: Alcina title role. Awards include: Palm Beach Opera Competition junior division. Rachel studies piano privately and sings in the school choir.
Allison Sanders Papagena is a mezzo- soprano trom Memphis, studying in the voice program w ith Joan Patenaude- Yamell. Mikael Eliasen, head of vocal studies Mikael Eliasen, a Danish-bom coach and accompanist, received his early training in Copenhagen, Montreal, and Vienna. He joined the Curtis faculty in and became the head of the departmeiit in Ralph Batman, administrator and production manager, vocal studies department Ralph Batman joined The Curtis Iristitute of Music inafter serving as stage manager and production manager for the Opera Company of Philadelphia, spending five years as production stage manager with the Philadelphia Drama Guild, and working as stage manager and company manager for the Pennsylvania Ballet.
Batman began his career as stage manager and designer, and eventually producer, for a chain of Equity dinner theaters in the Midwest. Mozart created its magical setting by incorporating touches of Egypt, an exotic place to his ISth-century audiences.
To director Emma Griffin and the production team for the Curtis Opera Theatre's Magic Flute, it is the woods that hold the magic that swirls around the characters. Griffin said. They go into the woods, they run into these people, a lot happens, and they exit the other side having figured something out.
Griffin's interpretation, is Pamina. She is herself trying to navigate this world, with the aid of Tamino," said the director. Crafting the visual world along with Ms. Griffin were scenic designer David Zinn, costume designer Meredith Palin, and lighting designer Mark Barton, a production team that has created many theatrical works together.
Long before rehearsals with the Curtis students began, they were discussing images and interpretations in order to decide, Ms. Griffin said, "What are the ways in which we want to tell this story? For the rest of the answer, watch and listen.
Enrollment is small — ahout students, based on the musicians needed for a symphony orchestra, opera department, and select programs in piano, organ, harpsichord, composition, and conducting.
Curtis provides a highly personalized education, the cornerstone of which is one-on-one study with some of today's leading musical artists. Admission is highly selective, with approximately 5 percent of applicants accepted each year, and all students receix e full-tuition scholarships based on merit, enstiring that talent is the sole consideration for admission.
Students may pursue a Diploma or Bachelor of Music degree. The Curtis Opera Theatre, headed by Mikael Eliasen, is :omposed of approximately 25 singers, ages 18 to More than 60 ilumni have sung with the Metropolitan Opera, Aspetta - Donizetti*, and Curtis graduates :an be found on the rosters of opera companies worldwide. Seventeen percent of the principal chairs in America's leading orchestras and music directorships of three major orchestras are held by Curtis alumni.
Since its founding inThe Curtis Institute of Music has consistently been considered one of the leading music schools ot the world. Curtis Fellowship S Hannah Choi jean j. Other Brass Instruments All the brass instruments described so far are staples of both the orchestra and the band. Many other brass instruments and even whole families of instruments have been invented for use in marching bands and have then sometimes found their way into the orchestra.
Among these are the cornet and the fgelhorn, both of which resemble the trumpet; the euphonium, baritone horn, and saxhorn, which are somewhere between the French horn and the tuba; and the sousaphone, a hand- some bass tuba named after the great American band- master and march composer John Philip Sousa. Finally there is the bugle. This simple trumpetlike instrument is very limited in the pitches it can play be- cause it has no piston or valve mechanism.
Buglers play Taps and military fanfares, and not much else. Percussion Instruments Instruments in this category produce sound by being struck or sometimes rattled, as with the South American maraca. Some percussion instruments, such as drums and gongs, have no fxed pitch, just a striking tone color.
Others, such as the vibraphone, have whole sets of wooden or metal elements tuned to regular scales. Timpani The timpani or kettledrums are large hemispherical drums that can be tuned precisely to cer- tain low pitches.
Used in groups of two or more, timpani have the effect of cementing loud sounds when the whole orchestra plays, so they are the most widely used percussion instruments in the orchestra. Timpani are tuned by tightening the drumhead by means of screws set around the rim. During a concert, one can often see the timpani player, when there are rests in the music, leaning over the drums, tapping them qui- etly to hear whether the tuning is just right.
Pitched Percussion Instruments Pitched percussion instruments are scale instruments, capable of playing melodies and consisting of whole sets of metal or wooden bars or plates struck with sticks or hammers. While they add unforgettable special sound effects to many composi- tions, they are not usually heard consistently throughout a piece, as the timpani are.
They differ in their materials. The glockenspiel has small steel bars. It is a high instrument with a bright, penetrating sound. Two French horns, trumpet, trombone, and tuba 20 unit I Fundamentals The xylophone has hardwood plates or slats. It plays as high as the glockenspiel but also lower, and it has a drier, sharper tone. The marimba, an instrument of African and South American origins, is a xylophone with tubular resonators under each wooden slat, making the tone much mellower.
The vibraphone has metal plates, like a glockenspiel with a large range, and is furnished with a controllable electric resonating device. This gives the vibes an echo- ing, funky quality unlike that of any other instrument.
Also like the glockenspiel, the celesta has steel bars, but its sound is more delicate and silvery. This instrument, unlike the others in this section, is not played directly by a percussionist wielding hammers or sticks.
The hammers are activated from a keyboard; a celesta looks like a minia- ture piano. Tubular bells, or chimes, are hanging tubes that are struck with a big mallet. They sound like church bells. Unpitched Percussion Instruments In the category of percussion instruments without a fxed pitch, the follow- ing are the most frequently found in the orchestra.
Cymbals are concave metal plates, from a few inches to several feet in diameter. In orchestral music, pairs of large cymbals are clapped together to support climactic moments in the music with a grand clashing sound. The triangle a simple metal triangle gives out a bright tinkle when struck. The tam-tam is a large unpitched gong with a low, often sinister quality. The snare drum, tenor drum, and bass drum are among the unpitched drums used in the orchestra.
The Orchestra The orchestra has changed over the centuries, just as orchestral music has. Bachs orchestra in the early s was about a ffth the size of the orchestra required today. See pages, and for the makeup of the orchestra at various historical periods. So todays symphony orchestra has to be a fuid group. Eighty musicians or more will be on the regular roster, but some of them sit out some of the pieces on many programs. A typical large orchestra today includes the follow- ing sections, also called choirs.
Strings: about thirty to thirty-six violinists, twelve violists, ten to twelve cellists, and eight double basses. Woodwinds: two futes and a piccolo, two clarinets and a bass clarinet, two oboes and an English horn, two bassoons and a contrabassoon.
Percussion: one to four players, who between them manage the timpani and all the other percussion instru- ments, moving from one to the other. For unlike the violins, for example, the percussion instruments seldom have to be played continuously throughout a piece. There are several seating plans for orchestras; which is chosen depends on at least two factors. The conductor judges which arrangement makes the best sound in the particular hall. And some conductors feel they can con- trol the orchestra better with one arrangement, some with another.
One such seating plan is shown on page Keyboard Instruments Though most orchestras today include a pianist, the piano is a relatively new addition to the symphony orchestra. In earlier times, the orchestra regularly included another keyboard instrument, the harpsichord. The great advantage of keyboard instruments, of course, is that they can play more than one note at a time. A pianist, for example, can play a whole piece on a key- board instrument without requiring any other musicians at all.
Consequently the solo music that has been written for piano, harpsichord, and organ is much more extensive than accompanied solo music for other instru- ments more extensive and ultimately more important. Piano The tuned strings of a piano are struck by felt-covered hammers, activated from a keyboard. Much technological ingenuity has been devoted to the activating mechanism, or action. The hammers must strike the string and then fall back at once, while a damping device made of felt touches the string to stop the sound instantly.
All this must be done so fast that the pianist can play repeated notes as fast as the hand can move. Also, many shades of loudness and softness must lie ready under the players fngers.
This dynamic fexibility is what gave the piano its name: piano is short for pianoforte, meaning soft-loud. The list of virtuoso pianists who were also major composers extends from Mozart through Frdric Chopin to Sergei Rachmaninov. In the nineteenth century, the piano became the solo instrument. At the same time, nearly every middle-class European and American house- hold had a piano. Piano lessons served and still serve for millions of young people as an introduction to the world of music.
Harpsichord The harpsichord is an ancient key- board instrument that was revived in the s for the playing of Baroque music, in particular. Like the piano, the harpsichord has a set of tuned strings activated from a keyboard, but the action is much DVD The Orchestra in Actio n Take a break from reading now and listen to The Young Persons Guide to the Orchestra, a work devised by Benjamin Britten in to introduce the many tone colors of orchestral instruments.
A full chart of this work is given on page For now, the chart below will lead you one by one through the various sections and instruments of the orchestra. There is no damping, and instead of hammers striking the strings, little bars fip up with quills that pluck them. This means, frst, that the tone is brittle and ping-y.
Second, it means that the player cannot vary dynamics; when a string is plucked in this way, it always sounds the same. Harpsichord makers compensated for this limitation in dynamics by adding one or two extra full sets of strings, controlled by an extra keyboard. One keyboard could be soft, the other loud. A mechanism allowed the keyboards to be coupled together for the loudest sound of all. In spite of its brittle tone and its lack of fexibility in dynamics, the harpsichord can be a wonderfully expres- sive instrument.
Good harpsichord playing requires, frst and foremost, great rhythmic subtlety. Another keyboard instrument of early times, the clavichord, has the simplest action of all. Its tone is much too quiet for concert use. Organ Called the king of instruments, the pipe organ is certainly the largest of them see page This instrument has to provide enough sound to fll the large spaces of churches and cathedrals on a suitably grand scale.
The organ has a great many sets of tuned pipes through which a complex wind system blows air, again activated from a keyboard. The pipes have different tone colors, and most organs have more than one keyboard to control different sets of pipes.
A pedal board a big key- board on the foor, played with the feet controls the lowest-sounding pipes. Each set of tuned pipes is called a stop; a moderate- sized organ has forty to ffty stops, but much bigger organs exist. One organ in Atlantic City, New Jersey, has 1, stops, for a total of 33, pipes. A large organ is capable of an almost orchestral variety of sound.
An elaborately painted eighteenth-century harpsichord, with two keyboards An organ with fve! The player pulls out the white knobs stops to change the sets of pipes that sound. Here Francesco Trevisani includes also a violin, a recorder, and a harpsichord. The organ is not a member of the orchestra, but because the grandest occasions call for orchestra, chorus, vocal soloists, and organ combined e.
Electronic Keyboard Instruments Today keyboard or organ generally means an electronic instrument. Synthe- sizers simulate the sound of organs, pianos, and harpsi- chords and many other sounds as well. Modern concert music, from the s on, has oc- casionally used electronic keyboards. On the whole, how- ever, synthesizers have been used more to compose concert music than to play it. And of course electronic keyboards play major roles in todays popular music.
Plucked Stringed Instruments Plucked stringed instruments fgure much less in art music of the West than in Asian countries such as India and Japan, as we shall see. One exception is the orchestral harp; see page The acoustic guitar and the mandolin are used very widely in Western popular music, but only occasionally in orchestras. However, a now-obsolete plucked instrument, the lute, was of major importance in earlier times. One of the most beautiful-looking of instruments, the lute sounds rather like a gentle guitar.
Large members of the lute family were the theorbo and the archlute. Like keyboard instruments, plucked stringed instru- ments have been revolutionized by electronic technology. Electric guitars dominate rock music, though they have only occasionally found their way into concert music. Instead, it draws on only a limited number of fxed pitches.
These pitches can be assembled in a collection called a scale. In effect, a scale is the pool of pitches available for making music. From them, musicians everywhere build an infnite array of melodies and other musical structures. If you sing to yourself the melody of one of your favorite songs, you will have employed the pitches of a scale. But how do scales in particular the scales basic to Western art music work? The Octave Any two pitches will have a certain distance, or difference in highness and lowness, between them.
Musicians call this distance an interval. Of the many different intervals used in music, one called the octave has a special character that makes it particularly important. If successive pitches are sounded one after another say, running from low to high up the white keys on a piano there comes a point at which a pitch seems in some sense to duplicate an earlier pitch, but at a higher level.
This new pitch does not sound identical to the old one, but somehow the two sounds are very similar. They blend extremely well; they almost seem to melt into each other.
This is the octave. What causes the phenomenon of octaves? Recall from Chapter 2 that when strings vibrate to produce sound, they vibrate not only along their full length but also in halves and other fractions page A vibrating string that is exactly half as long as another will reinforce the longer strings strongest overtone.
This reinforcement causes the duplication effect of octaves. As strings go, so go vocal cords: When men and women sing along to- gether, they automatically sing in octaves, duplicating each others singing an octave or two apart. If you ask them, they will say they are singing the same song not many will think of adding at different octave levels. We divide these octave segments into smaller intervals, thereby creating scales.
The Diatonic Scale The scale originally used in Western music is a set of seven pitches within the octave, called the diatonic scale. Dating from ancient Greek times, the diatonic scale is still in use today. When the frst of the seven pitches is repeated at a higher duplicating pitch, the total is eight hence the name octave, meaning eight span.
Anyone who knows the series do re mi fa sol la ti do is at home with the diatonic scale. You can count out the octave for yourself starting with the frst Choral singing, the route by which millions of people have come to know and love music A pioneer of modern design, the German American painter Josef Albers produced twenty-seven of these wonderful treble clefs, all in different color combinations.
The set of white keys on a keyboard plays this scale. Shown in the following diagram is a keyboard and diatonic scale notes running through two octaves. The scale notes pitches are marked with their conventional letter names. Because there are seven pitches, only the letters up to G are used before returning to A. At a later period, fve more pitches were added between certain of the seven pitches of the diatonic scale, making a total of twelve.
This is the chromatic scale, repre- sented by the complete set of white and black keys on a keyboard. The chromatic scale did not make the diatonic scale obsolete. For centuries Western composers used the chromatic scale freely while favoring the diatonic scale that is embedded in it.
Keyboards refect this practice, with their chromatic notes set back and thinner, and colored differently from the diatonic ones.
These fve extra pitches caused a problem for musical notation. The pitches of the diatonic scale are indicated on the lines and spaces of the staff see the following diagram ; there are no positions in between, so no place for the new fve pitches. To solve this problem, symbols such as those shown in the margin were introduced. For more detail on the notation of pitches, see Appendix B. B C Half Steps and Whole Steps You learned before that the difference, or distance, between any two pitches is called the interval between them.
There are many different intervals between the notes of the chromatic scale, depending on which two notes you choose, including the octave that encompasses them all. Always remember that in listening to a piece of music you must hang on to the melodic line.
It may disappear momentarily, withdrawn by the com- poser, in order to make its presence more powerfully felt when it reappears. But reappear it surely will. From what is still one of the best books on music appreciation, What to Listen for in Music by composer Aaron Copland, see page The smallest interval is the half step, or semitone, which is the distance between any two successive notes of the chromatic scale.
On a keyboard, a half step is the interval between the closest adjacent notes, white or black. As the smallest interval in regular use, the half step is also the smallest that most people can hear easily and identify. Many tunes, such as The Battle Hymn of the Republic, end with two half steps, one half step going down and then the same one going up again His truth is march-ing on.
Three Blind Mice starts with two whole steps, going down. The chromatic scale consists exclusively of half steps. The diatonic scale, instead, includes both half steps and whole steps. As you can see in the key- board picture below, between B and C and between E and F of the diatonic scale, the interval is a half step there is no black key separating the white keys.
Between the other pairs of adjacent notes, however, the interval is twice as big a whole step. In this way the diatonic and chromatic scales differ in the intervals between their adjacent pitches. In the following diagram, the two scales are shown in music notation in order to highlight the differences in their interval structure.
The mixing of half steps and whole steps is a defning feature of the diatonic scale. Melodies can be built from any scale. Think for a moment of pitch and time as the two coordinates of a musical graph see the diagram on page If we connect them by a line, we get a picture of the melodys overall shape or contour. Melodies come in an unlimited array of shapes, and they convey a huge variety of emotional char- acters. A melody in which each note is higher than the last can seem to soar; a low note can feel like a setback; a long series of repeated notes on the same pitch can seem to wait ominously.
The listener develops a real interest in how the line of a satis- factory melody is going to come out. Of all musics structures, melody is the one that moves people the most, that seems to evoke human sentiment most directly. Familiar melodies register simple qualities of feeling instantly and strongly. These qualities vary widely: strong and assertive like a bugle call in The Battle Hymn of the Republic, mournful in Summertime or Yesterday, serene in Amazing Grace, extroverted and cheerful in Happy Birthday.
Tunes A simple, easily singable, catchy melody such as a folk song, or a Christmas carol, or many popular songs is a tune. A tune is a special kind of melody.
Melody is a term that includes tunes, but also much else. The Star-Spangled Banner, which everyone knows, Aspetta - Donizetti* the general characteristics of tunes.
See the box on page Motives and Themes Tunes are relatively short; longer pieces, such as symphonies, may have tunes embedded in them, but they also contain other musical material. Two terms are frequently encountered in connection with melody in longer pieces of music: motive and theme.
A motive is a distinctive fragment of melody, distinctive enough so that it will be easily recognized when it returns again and again within a long com- position. Motives are shorter than tunes, shorter even than phrases of tunes; they can be as short as two notes. It is heard literally hundreds of times in the symphony, sometimes up front and sometimes as a restless element in the background.
Theme is another name for topic: The themes or topics of an essay you might write are the main points you announce, repeat, develop, and hammer home.
A composer treats musical themes in much the same way. The famous theme of the last movement of Beethovens Ninth Symphony is a full tune, which we will hear several times on the DVD see page Division into Phrases Tunes fall naturally into smaller sections, called phrases. This is, in fact, true of all melodies, but with tunes the division into phrases is particularly clear and sharp.
In tunes with words that is, songsphrases tend to coincide with poetic lines. Most lines in a song lyric end with a rhyming word and a punctuation mark such as a comma.
These features clarify the musical phrase divisions: And the rockets red glare, The bombs bursting in air Singing a song requires breathing and the natural tendency is to breathe at the end of phrases.
You may not need to breathe after phrase 1 of our national anthem, but youd better not wait any longer than phrase Balance between Phrases In many tunes, all the phrases are two, four, or eight bars long. Blues tunes, for example, usually consist of three four-measure phrases, hence the term twelve-bar blues. Most phrases of The Star-Spangled Banner are two measures long see phrase 1 and phrase 2, above.
But one phrase broadens out to four measures, with a fne effect: Oh sa 1 y, does that st 2 ar-spangled ban 3 ner yet wa 4 ve. You dont want to breathe in the middle of this long phrase. Other phrase lengths three measures, fve, and so on can certainly occur in a tune and make for welcome contrast. For a good tune, the main requirement is that we sense a balance between the phrases, in terms of phrase lengths and in other terms, too, so that taken to- gether the phrases add up to a well-proportioned whole.
Parallelism and Contrast Balance between phrases can be strengthened by means of parallelism. For example, phrases can have the same notes but different words Oh, say can you see, Whose broad stripes and bright stars. Others have the same rhythm but different pitches Oh, say can you see, By the dawns early light.
Sometimes phrases have the same general melodic shape, but one phrase is slightly higher or lower than the other And the rockets red glare, The bombs bursting in air. Such duplication of a phrase at two or more different pitch levels, called sequence, occurs frequently in music, and is a hallmark of certain musical styles. Composers also take care to make some phrases contrast with their neighbors one phrase short, another long, or one phrase low, another high perhaps even too high, at Oer the land of the free.
A tune with some parallel and some contrasting phrases will seem to have a satisfying coherence and yet will avoid monotony. Climax and Cadence A good tune has form: a clear, purposeful beginning, a feeling of action in the middle, and a frm sense of winding down at the end.
Many tunes have a distinct high point, or climax, which their earlier portions seem to be heading toward. Feelings rise as voices soar; a melodic high point is always an emo- tional high point. The climax of our national anthem em- phasizes what was felt to be the really crucial word in it free. Patriot Francis Scott Key put that word in that place. Key wrote the words of The Star-Spangled Banner the words only, adapted to an older melody.
Then the later part of the tune relaxes from this cli- max, until it reaches a solid stopping place at the end. Emotionally, this is a point of relaxation and satisfaction. In a less defnite way, the music also stops at earlier points in the tune or, if it does not fully stop, at least seems to pause.
The term for these interim stopping or pausing places is cadence. Composers can write cadences with all possible shades of solidity and fnality. And the home of the brave is a very fnal-sounding cadence; That our fag was still there has an interim feeling. The art of making cadences is one of the most subtle and basic processes in musical composition.
Characteristics of Tunes chapter 3 Scales and Melody 31 Melody and Tune Division into phrases, parallelism and contrast between phrases, sequence, climax, and cadence: These are some characteristics of tunes that we have observed in The Star-Spangled Banner.
They are not just inert characteristics they are what make the tune work, and they are present in tunes of all kinds. In The Star-Spangled Banner the climax matches the text perfectly at free. Who cares? First phrase of the tune Who cares what banks fail in Yonkers? Contrasting phrase Long as youve got a kiss that conquers.
Parallel phrase starts like the preceding, ends higher Why should I care? When people sing in the shower and when parents sing to their babies they are producing melody, and that is all, to everyones full satis- faction. The same was true of the early Christian Church, whose music, Gre- gorian chant, consisted of more than two thousand different melodies and melodies alone.
Today, however and this is the outcome of a long and complicated his- torical development it seems very natural to us to hear melodies together with other sounds. We are accustomed to hearing a folk singer singing and playing a guitar at the same time accompanying herself on the guitar, as we say. In church, the congregation sings the hymns while the organist supplies the accompaniment.
Two concepts of basic importance in thinking about the way pitches sound together with each other are harmony and texture.
The folk singers melody is said to be harmonized. She uses a number of standard groupings of simultaneous pitches that work well in combination. These groupings are called chords. The changing chords provide a sort of constantly shifting sound background for the melody. Any melody can be harmonized in different ways using different chords, and the overall effect of the music depends to a great extent on the nature of these chords, or the harmony in general. In most of the music we hear, harmony is almost as basic and important an element as melody.
And, like melody, harmony is a powerful stimulus to our emotional responses to music. Consonance and Dissonance A pair of terms used in discussions of harmony is consonance and dissonance, meaning roughly speaking chords that sound at rest and those that sound tense, respectively. Discord is another term for dissonance. These qualities Melody and harmony: singer Joni Mitchell playing the Appalachian dulcimer chapter 4 Harmony, Texture, Tonality, and Mode 33 depend on the kinds of intervals see page 25 that are sounding simul- taneously to make up these chords.
Octaves are the most consonant of intervals. Half steps are the most dissonant, as you can hear by striking any two adjacent keys on a piano at the same time.
In everyday language, discord implies something unpleasant; discordant human relationships are to be avoided. But music does not avoid dissonance in its technical meaning, for a little discord supplies the subtle tensions that are essential to make music fow along. A dissonant chord leaves a feeling of ex- pectation; it requires a consonant chord following it to complete the gesture and to make the music come to a point of stability.
This is called resolution; the dissonance is said to be resolved. Without dissonance, music would be bland, like food without salt or spices. The word is adopted from textiles, where it refers to the weave of the various threads loose or tight, even or mixed.
A cloth such as tweed or denim, for instance, leaves the different threads clearly visible. In fne silk the weave is so tight and smooth that the threads can be impossible to detect. Melody exists in the horizontal dimension, from left to right; texture in the vertical dimension, from top to bottom. For the moment, we leave the lower dots below the melody unconnected. Monophony Monophony mo-nh-fo-nee is the term for the simplest texture, a single un- accompanied melody: Gregorian chant; singing in the shower; Row, Row, Row Your Boat before the second person comes in.
Simple as this texture is, some very beautiful and sophisticated monophonic music has been composed, just as artists have done wonderful things with line drawings: See page Homophony and Polyphony When there is only one melody of real interest and it is combined with other, less prominent sounds, the texture is called homophonic. A harmonized mel- ody is an example of homophonic texture; for instance, one person singing the tune of Yesterday while playing chords on a guitar.
Each box represents a chord; the sum of these boxes represents the harmony. Homophony can be thought of as a tight, smooth texture like silk, among the textiles. When two or more melodies are played or sung simultaneously, the tex- ture is described as polyphonic. In polyphony po-lf-o-neethe melodies are felt to be independent and of approximately equal interest. Medicine, to produce health, must know disease; music, to produce harmony, must know discord. Plutarch, c. In the textile analogy, polyphony would be compared to a rough fabric in which the strands are all perceptible, such as a multicolored woolen blanket.
Its also important to recognize that polyphonic music automatically has harmony. For at every moment in time, on every beat, the multiple hori- zontal melodies create vertical chords; those chords make harmony. A word often used for polyphonic texture is contrapuntal, which comes from the word counterpoint, the technique of writing two or more melodies that ft together.
Imitation Polyphonic texture, like so many other musical elements, cannot be catego- rized with any precision. One useful and important distinction, however, is between imitative polyphony and non-imitative polyphony. Imitative polyphony results when the various lines sounding together use the same or fairly similar melodies, with one coming in shortly after another.
In the following music example, you can see that each voice enters with the same notes but in staggered fashion; the second and third voices imitate the frst: P I T C H TI ME 2 4. An example that many will know is the typical texture of a New Orleans jazz band, with the trumpet playing the main tune fanked top and bottom by the clarinet and the trombone playing exhilarating melodies of their own. We have deferred them till last because, even more than the other basic structures of music, they require careful explanation.
Tonality We start with a basic fact about melodies and tunes: Melodies nearly always give a sense of focusing around a single home pitch that feels more impor- tant than do all the other pitches of the scale. The other notes in the melody all sound close or distant, dissonant or consonant, in reference to the funda- mental note, and some of them may actually seem to lean or lead toward it.
This homing instinct that we sense in melodies can be referred to in the broadest terms as the feeling of tonality. The music in question is described as tonal.
The home pitch do is called the tonic pitch, or simply the tonic. The easy way to identify the tonic is to sing the whole melody through, because the last note is almost invariably it. Thus The Star-Spangled Banner ends on its tonic, do: and the home of the brave. An entire piece of music, as well as just a short melody, can give this feeling of focusing on a home pitch and wanting to end there. Major and Minor Modes Turn back to Aspetta - Donizetti* 27 and the diagram for the diatonic scale, the basic scale of Western music.
This diagram, of course, showed only a portion of a longer scale extending all the way up the octaves, from the lowest limits of hearing to the highest. Our portion, covering two octaves, started from C because most melodies are oriented around C doas weve just explained. Texture A famous passage from Beethoven furnishes a clear example of monophonic, polyphonic, and homophonic textures the initial presentation of the so-called Joy Theme in Symphony No. The theme, a tune known around the world, takes its name from the words set to it, an enthusiastic ode to the joy that comes from human freedom, companionship, and reverence for the deity.
The words are sung by soloists and a chorus. But before anyone sings, the theme is played several times by the orchestra, in a way that suggests that joy is emerging out of nothingness into its full realization.
Beginning with utterly simple monophony, and growing successively higher and louder, it is enriched by polyphony and then reaches its grand climax in homophony. Quel guardo il cavaliere So anch'io la virt— magica E il dottor non si vede!
Buone nuove, Norina - Pronta io son, purch'io non manchi Mi volete fiera? Vado, corro Ernesto Povero Ernesto! Akt E se fia che ad altro oggetto Quando avrete introdotto il dottor CD2 1. Via, da brava 3. Non abbiate paura 5. Fra da una parte et cetera 9. Pria di partir, signore Siete marito e moglie E rimasto l… impietrato Riunita immantinente
Discover releases, reviews, track listings, recommendations, and more about Gaetano Donizetti, Tito Schipa, Carlo Sabajno, Afro Poli, Adelaide Saraceni, Orchestra* E Coro Del Teatro Alla Scala Di Milano* - Don Pasquale at Discogs. Complete your Gaetano Donizetti, Tito Schipa, Carlo Sabajno, Afro Poli, Adelaide Saraceni, Orchestra* E Coro Del Teatro Alla Scala Di Milano* collection/5(2). Donizetti: Don Sebastiano -O Lisbona / Meyerbeer: Dinorah -Sei vendicata assai K * Martinelli, Giovanni, t (M) Vitaphone, vinyl pressing, plain pink label Dated vi LONG-PLAY, 33 RPM Verdi: Aida -Celeste Aida (M) Dated vi Credited as "Bartinelli". It is inherently clicky during the recitative. LONG-PLAY, His Wort Lectures at the University of Cambridge concerned the evolutionary emergence of music. vi Contents in Brief Preface To the Instructor ix Introduction To the Student xxv uni t I Fundamentals 3 Prelude A Musical Thunderstorm by Richard Wagner 4 1 Rhythm, Meter, and Tempo 7 2 Pitch, Dynamics, and Tone Color 12 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Don Pasquale, Act III Quinta Scena: Aspetta, aspetta, cara sposina (Pasquale/Malatesta) Aspetta, aspetta, cara sposina Don Pasquale, Act III Sesta Scena: Com' e gentil la notte a mezzo (Ernesto/Coro) Com'e gentil la notte a mezzo april! Don Pasquale, Act III Sesta Scena: Tornami a dir che m'ami (Norina/Ernesto) Tornami a. THIS DOCUMENT IS COMPILED BY ROBERT THIS DOCUMENT IS COMPILED BY ROBERT JOHANNESSON, Fader Gunnars väg 11, S 65 Kristianstad, Sweden and published on my website pegaternatheza.pingbeetvantgistvisanrerolabdiopase.co It is a very hard work for me to compile it (as a hobby), so if you take information from it, mention my website, please! Lucia Di Lammermoor Act 3 Il Dolce Suono Lucia Normanno Raimondo Enrico Chorus - EDITA GRUBEROVA 7. Com E Gentil La Notte Don Pasquale Act3 Remast - SARAH CALDWELL, LONDON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, AMBROSIAN OPERA CHORUS LONDON, ALFREDO KRAUS 8. Il Barbiere Di Siviglia Act 1 Una Voce Poco Fa Rosina - MARIA CALLAS 9. vinyl Gaetano Donizetti Don Pasquale Pt11 Scipio Colombo Lina Aymaro Melchiore Luise Juan Oncina Argeo Quadri Pt's 10,11,12,13,14 Act 3 Gaetano Donizetti Don Pasquale Part 10 Act3 Don Pasquale--Melchiore Luise Doctor Malatesta--Scipio Colombo Ernesto--Juan Oncina Norina--Lina Aymaro A Notary--Josef Schmiedinger Vienna State Opera/. check the value of your vinyl records by searching our archive. NOW Magazine August 4, Volume 30, Issue Carlo Bergonzi & Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau ~ Famous Duets by Giuseppe Verdi, Giacomo Puccini, Georges Bizet, Amilcare Ponchielli, Jesus Lopez-Cobos, Carlo Bergonzi, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Bayerichen Rundfunkorchester Audio, Published by Orfeo: 1. La forza del destino: Solenne in quest'ora 2. La forza del destino: Ivano Alvaro 3. La Gioconda: Enzo Grimaldo, Principe di Santafior 4.
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